Paper of the week: Periprosthetic joint infection in aseptic total hip arthroplasty revision. Renard G, Laffosse JM, Tibbo M, Lucena T, Cavaignac E, Rouvillain JL, Chiron P, Severyns M, Reina N. Int Orthop. 2019 Jun 25. doi: 10.1007/s00264-019-04366-2.
Summary by Dr Sreeram Penna
Aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate incidence of occult infection in presumed aseptic total hip arthroplasty revisions and to identify associated risk factors. Researchers retrospectively reviewed all patients who underwent aseptic total hip revision between 2009 and 2013. Total of 523 cases (498 patients) were identified. The main indications for revision were aseptic loosening(283/523, 54%), instability (91/523, 17%), periprosthetic fracture (56/523, 11%), wear and osteolysis (35/523, 7%), unexplained pain (12/523, 2%), implant fracture (13/523, 3%), and others (metallosis, squeaking, tumour, aseptic lymphocyte-dominated vascular-associated lesion, psoas impingement)(33/523, 6%). Unexpected positive cultures (UPC) were found in 78 cases (15%). Of these 58 cases were monomicrobial, and 20 cases polymicrobial. Further review identified 36 cases (7%) with positive cultures as true infections and other 42 cases (8%) as contaminants. Infection was identified in 15/91 (16%) cases who underwent revision for instability. Similarly, incidence of infection was 12% in patients with periprosthetic fracture, 3.2% in aseptic loosening and 2.8% in polyethylene wear and osteolysis group. On further analysis researchers found statistically significant difference in early dislocation (with in 3 months) rates in infection group (31%) compared to non-infection group (7%) (p<0.001).