Is the biofilm on orthopaedic implant surfaces permeable to neutrophils and macrophages in vivo? Are these innate immune cells (meaning any macrophages or neutrophils) capable of engulfing and killing bacteria?

Edward Schwarz, Jamie Esteban, Hamidreza Yazdi, John-Jairo Aguilera-Correa

Response / recommendation
A mature bacterial biofilm has limited permeability to neutrophils and macrophages. Those that get through are clinically ineffective at eradicating biofilm bacteria. While neutrophils and macrophages are capable of engulfing and killing planktonic bacteria, they are not innately capable of effectively engulfing and killing sessile bacteria in biofilm.

Voting and Rationale