Does the sampling technique (e.g., number of samples, tissue versus fl uid versus implant, anatomic locations) aff ect the results for culture of specimens obtained in the evaluation of shoulder periprosthetic joint infection (PJI)?

Authors: Benjamin Zmistowski, Joseph Zuckerman, Mandeep Virk
RECOMMENDATION: We recommend fi ve deep tissue specimens for culture be obtained from various surgical sites (e.g., capsule, humeral canal and periprosthetic membranes in the proximal humerus and glenoid). Use of swabs is discouraged. Fresh instruments should be used to obtain and place samples directly into sterile containers. Fluid sampling may be benefi cial but has lower yield compared to tissue.
DELEGATE VOTE: Agree: 100%, Disagree: 0%, Abstain: 0% (Unanimous, Strongest Consensus)